Teaching Techniques of Prophet Muhammad (sa) – A Workshop for Parents & Educators

Teaching Techniques 2

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Implementing Sunnah in Today’s Classrooms – Part 3

13) Teach what is easily acceptable

Ali ibn Abi Talib (rtam) said: “Narrate to the people what they are acquainted with. Would you like Allah (swt) and His Messenger (sa) to be rejected?” (Bukhari)

Educators should remember that if they overload the students, this might result in a complete breakdown. If a student collapses intellectually once, it takes a mountain of effort to bring him/her back on track.

In terms of teaching Islamic obligations, one step at a time should be taken, in order to make the new entrant in this field comfortable. For example, let younger children begin their Salah with Fard only. Later, when they get into the routine, ask them to attempt a few Sunnah units as well. This way, they will not feel over-burdened. Sports’ coaches face similar situations. For instance, weights are increased progressively to make the athlete accept the challenge easily.

14) First the easy and then the difficult

When the Prophet (sa) sent Muadh ibn Jabal (rtam) to Yemen, he said to him: “You are going to the people of the Scripture. Let the first thing to which you will invite them be the Tauhid of Allah (swt). If they learn that, tell them that Allah (swt) has enjoined on them five prayers to be offered in one day and one night. If they pray, tell them that Allah (swt) has enjoined on them Zakah of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor. If they agree to that, then take from them the Zakah but avoid the best property of the people.” (Bukhari)

Thus, Allah’s Messenger (sa) taught Muadh (rtam) the order, in which to teach the people of Yemen, so that they would not suddenly feel overburdened with the injunctions. This step-by-step approach must be adopted in today’s classrooms, so that the students easily grasp concepts, as they grow intellectually.

15) Make matters easy for the students

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: “Allah has not sent me as a person, who causes difficulty to others. Rather, He sent me as a teacher, who gives glad tidings.” (Muslim)

According to Allah’s Messenger (sa), the primary function of the teacher is to make matters easy for students to understand, that is, simplify and dilute the lessons for their wards. The level of lesson must be brought down to match the mental abilities of the students. A teacher can impress his or her students with fancy words, but if he or she fails to make them comprehend the lesson, then the purpose is lost. Educators should ensure their students understand the lesson.

16) Break down into easier goals

Abdullah ibn Masud (rtam) said: “When any of us (companions) learnt ten verses, he would not go any further, until he had learnt their meaning and how to put it into practice.” (Kashf al-Qina) This is the perfect example of Allah’s Messenger’s (sa) teaching methodology. Breaking down a larger task into smaller units can help students achieve the easier goals. These can finally culminate to become important milestones for the students.

17) Interactive teaching

Abdullah bin Amr (rtam) said he heard Allah’s Messenger (sa) asking his companions: “Do you know who is a Muslim?” They replied: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: “A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslims are safe.” (Ahmad)

Interactive teaching is one of the most prominent characteristics of the Messenger’s (sa) teaching methodology. By asking questions, he stimulated the intellect of the students, and they then became more eager to absorb the knowledge. This method is especially beneficial, when a lesson becomes somewhat dull, and a question (on any related subject) becomes a wake-up call for those present.

18) Teaching by demonstration

A person came to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger! How should I perform ablution?” Allah’s Messenger (sa) asked for water in a container and demonstrated the complete act of ablution for him. (Abu Dawood) When teaching, the best way to make students remember and understand is to show them by performing the act yourself.

19) Similes and examples

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: “The example of a good companion and a bad companion is like that of the seller of musk and the one, who blows the blacksmith’s bellows. As for the seller of musk, then either he will grant you some, you will buy some from him or at least you will enjoy a pleasant smell from him. As for the one, who blows the blacksmith’s bellows, then either he will burn your clothes or you will get an offensive smell from him.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

Here, Allah’s Messenger (sa) has used a simile to explain the difference between good and bad company. Likewise, he would frequently use parables and similes to make the students understand the points he wanted to make. An important lesson here is that the teacher should not just issue orders; he or she should explain the wisdom behind them as well.

20) Storytelling

One of the favourite methods of Allah’s Messenger (sa) was true storytelling. The Quran, the Ahadeeth and other Islamic books are full of historical events and inspiring narratives, which can be used to impart knowledge and values to the students. Regardless of which subject you teach, you can always narrate an interesting anecdote, when the class becomes boring during a long discourse.

21) Use body language

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: “Should I not inform you about the most serious of major sins?” He said this thrice. At that time, he was leaning against something. Then he sat up and said: “Behold! A false statement and a false testimony! Behold! A false statement and a false testimony!” (Muslim)

The repetitive style of the Messenger (sa) is used here to emphasize the importance of the subject coming up. Note that to utter the last statement, he sat up. A teacher’s body language is very important to his delivery. A sudden change in posture can make the students more attentive in class.

22) Illustrate with hand gestures

Allah’s Messenger (sa) said: “A believer to another believer is like a wall – one part strengthens the other.” Allah’s Messenger (sa) then interlocked his fingers. (Bukhari) In the absence of audio-visual aids, even a simple act of using one’s hand or body can help students understand an important topic.

23) Exhibit items

Allah’s Messenger (sa) took a piece of silk in his left hand and some gold in his right hand. He raised them with his hands and said: “These two items are prohibited to the males of my Ummah.”

Announcing the prohibition might have been enough, but the Messenger (sa) deliberately chose to exhibit samples of the items being discussed. This emphasizes the importance of visual images in teaching. Educators using these on a regular basis will experience a higher level of learning from their students, Insha’Allah!

24) Let students take notes

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (rtam) said: “I used to write down everything, which I used to hear from Allah’s Messenger (sa).” (Abu Dawood) Bear in mind that some students are slow in writing. Be patient with them, so that they may record your knowledge.

25) Encourage students to ask questions

The Quran instructs: “…So ask of those who know the scripture [learned men of the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], if you know not.” (An-Nahl 16:43) A teacher must be willing to answer his students’ queries. Allah’s Messenger (sa) encouraged the people to put forward their enquiries. He said: “The cure for ignorance is questioning.” (Ad-Daraqutni)

When dealing with queries, answer calmly and maintain your composure. Use logic and rationale when responding to questions. Your attitude should encourage students to ask for further explanation, if needed.

Adapted (with permission) from “How the Messenger of Allah (sa) Taught his Students” written by Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud (jahangir@ser.com.pk).

Published and distributed by M/s Al-Misbah, 16 Urdu Bazar, Lahore.

Phone: +92 42 371224656. Email: info@almisbah.biz

All rights reserved with the publishers.

Implementing Sunnah in Today’s Classrooms

35

The Messenger (sa) said: “I have only been sent as a teacher.” (Ibn Majah) Surely, that was his role: he had to impart the instructions and the message of the Lord (swt) of the worlds to humankind. This task assigned to him was multi-dimensional as well as layered with problems.

How can the Prophet’s (sa) example be applied to the modern-day classroom? The following tips are not only for the benefit of the instructors of Islamic sciences. They are applicable to teachers of all subjects and all schools. Remember: whatever profession you belong to, you shall have to play the role of a teacher at some time or the other; in fact, isn’t teaching the primary role of parents? It is hoped that teachers and parents alike will benefit from these tips.

1) Sincerity of Intention

Making an intention is a prerequisite for every action. Unless a deed is performed with a proper objective in mind, it cannot be rewarded. One must have a purpose for all that one does, rather than carry on without any direction. This is, of course true of a teaching as well.

The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: “The actions shall be judged only by the intentions.” (Bukhari) As educators, we will be rewarded for the noble intentions behind our teaching practices. There are three aspects of purifying one’s intention:

The first aspect: the intention to seek the pleasure of Allah (swt).

Every action that is performed for His sake, no matter how routine, is considered to be an act of worship.

The second aspect: sincerity.

Tamim Ad-Dari (rta) narrated: “The Messenger (sa) said: ‘The Deen is Naseehah (sincerity and sincere advice).’ We asked: ‘To whom?’ He said: ‘To Allah, His Book, His Messenger and the leaders of the Muslims and the general people.’” (Muslim)

The third aspect: following the Islamic methodology.

The Quran says: “Say (O Muhammad): If you truly love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive your sins; for, Allah is Oft-forgiving, most Merciful.” (Al-Imran 3:31)

The Messenger of Allah (sa) is the greatest reformer in the entire history. He is an emblem of all the best virtues and excellent qualities imaginable. He was blessed with the attributes of mercy, tolerance, forgiveness, love, compassion, truthfulness, piety, righteousness and steadfastness to the degree of perfection. To follow his example is to follow the perfect path – yes, this includes the classroom.

2) Teacher – Student Relationship

The most important element in teaching is the bond that the teacher has with the students. This relationship plays a decisive role in the learning process. If the relationship is based upon mutual love and respect, students will be able to absorb much more from their teacher. The Messenger of Allah (sa) said: “Verily, I am to you like a father is to his child; I am teaching you.” (Ibn Majah)

When a teacher becomes a second parent, the manner of dealing with the learners becomes positive and so do the results of teaching.

We know well the extent of love and respect that the companions of the Messenger (sa) had for him, the importance they gave him in their lives, and the way they were ever ready to lay down their lives at his command.

It must be remembered that this love did not and does not automatically install itself in the hearts; in the case of the companions, it was more of a reaction. It was the Messenger’s (sa) love and compassion because of which they became his devoted students. He was the embodiment of love and mercy for his companions.

The Quran says: “There has come to you a Messenger from amongst you: it weighs heavily upon him that which harasses you. [He is] anxious over your well-being. [He is] extremely compassionate and merciful to the believers.” (At-Taubah 9:128)

The love that the Messenger (sa) had for his students made them love him in return. The vibes of love and mercy he sent out led to their unconditional obedience. If the educators of today do not exude this level of compassion, how can they attain their students’ respect and obedience? If you want to receive love, you must first be prepared to give it.

3) Practice what you teach

The Messenger (sa) would teach through his own noble personality. His behaviour would inspire and motivate at the same time. His own actions were the best that can be in every scope of one’s life, especially as a teacher. The Quran says: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much.” (Al-Ahzab 33:21)

The ideal example is that of the Messenger (sa), whose each and every action and word was revealed by Allah (swt) Himself.

The Quran says: “Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an Inspiration that is inspired.” (An-Najm 53:3-4)

What instruction can be better than the instruction of the Creator Himself?

Amr ibn al-Aas (rta) said about the Messenger of Allah (sa): “He does not command any good without being the first one to act on it.” (Al-Khasais Al-Kubra)

These words encompass a world of beauty in the art of teaching. There must not be a conspicuous disparity between what one says and what one does. If there is, what else do we call hypocrisy?

A question that arises here is: “This is good for a teacher of Islamic studies or such, but how can a mathematics teacher or a teacher of languages ‘practice’ what he says?”
The answer to this question has two parts. Firstly, a teacher of a language, say English, needs to have a high standard of the language that he or she is teaching. Likewise, if a teacher encourages reading as a habit, he or she should be seen with a new book under his or her arm regularly. All teachers encourage good handwriting – should they not be careful about their own handwriting at all times?

Secondly, a teacher of religious studies or morals is not the only educator who teaches ethics to students. Remember: Every teacher is a role model for the students who observe him/her on the school premises or outside of it.

Always remember: “Correcting others is based on correcting oneself. Therefore, begin with yourself and then with those who are close to you.” (Quoted by Imam Ghazali in Ihya Uloom ad-Deen)

Adapted (with permission) from “How the Messenger of Allah (sa) Taught his Students” written by Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud (jahangir@ser.com.pk).

Published and distributed by M/s Al-Misbah, 16 Urdu Bazar, Lahore.

Phone: +92 42 371224656. Email: info@almisbah.biz

All rights reserved with the publishers.