Concept of Modernity in Islam

Vol 3- Issue 3  Concept of modernitySome Muslims feel that anything new or modern is good. But is this really the case? How should we understand modernity as Muslims? First, let us understand what modernization meant to the West.

David Lyon defines modernity:

“The term refers to the social order that emerged following the Enlightenment. Though its roots may be traced further back, the modern world is marked by its unprecedented dynamism, its dismissal or marginalizing of tradition, and by its global consequences.  Time seemed to speed up, and space to open up. Modernity’s forward-looking thrust relates strongly to belief in progress and the power of human reason to produce freedom.”

Lyon mentions that modernization dismisses or marginalizes tradition. He describes tradition as “a set of rules given by the village community, religious cultic life, or the elders or kings who held sway.” I will briefly discuss the benefits and shortcomings of modernization, as defined by the three proclaimed founders of sociology- Karl Marx, Emil Durkheim, and Max Weber – and give the Islamic view on modernization or progress.

Benefits of Modernization

Technological and Industrial Advancement

A major benefit of modernization was the growth of technology and industry. Such technological advances as the steam engine, machine tools, textile mills, and mass production of cars and computers are signs that a society is advancing or progressing – materialistically at least. Technology makes our lives easier and more expansive.

Division of Labor and Increased Individuality

To Emil Durkheim (1858-1917), modernization meant the division of labor (part of the industrial revolution). It relates to a differentiation and specialization of society in general: I specialize in making tires, while you specialize in making engines – we both depend on each other for benefits. The family and the individual have their separate spheres in society. This is linked to an increase in individuality.

Rationality

One of the benefits of modernization, according to Max Weber (1864-1918), is the transformation from traditional or religious dogma to scientific or rational thinking. By modernization and rationalization Weber meant the gradual adoption of a calculating attitude towards nearly all aspects of life. Having pushed what he saw as the ‘spirits and demons’ of traditional culture into the wings, the rational approach of science found its dynamic expression in the capitalist economy and took the centre stage, systematically infusing every sector of society.

Here, Weber’s concept of modernity corresponds with the Enlightenment view, which pushes aside the religious leaders and gives the authority and legitimacy to science and human reasoning. This suggests clues about the mindset of the modern western thinker or intellectual. Generally speaking, he rejects any kind of religion on the basis that it is ‘blindness’ and dogma.

Shortcomings of Modernization

Class Struggle and Capitalism

Karl Marx (1818-83) believed that the capitalists (the owners of production) would exploit the workers because of conflict of interests. Marx argued that the capitalists’ increasing wealth (surplus money) would create class consciousness that would divide society: I am higher than you, because I come from the city, while you come from the village. Marx did not discuss, how race and colour are related to class in western societies. Generally, being dark is linked to belonging to a lower class.

Anomie and Loneliness

According to Durkheim, when people become so much different from each other, they have the potential of falling into anomie – a pathological state of modernity, in which one looses connection with others in society. For example, rock stars take their lives, because they feel that no one understands or really cares about them; people commit suicide, because they get lonely during the holidays.

Modernization from Islamic Perspective

Islam is Enlightenment

First and foremost, secular capitalistic democratic modernization is not successful, because it was created by humans, who are limited in their ability to judge, reason, and comprehend creation. Allah (swt), the Creator of all that exists, says:

“Such is Alah, your Lord! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone), and He is the Wakil (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) over all things.” (Al-Anam 6:102)

Because He is the Creator, He is in a better position to tell us, how we should live for our benefit and progress.

Islam’s birth was the light for humanity and the world at large. Allah (swt) says:

“Then if they reject you (O Muhammad), so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Bayyinat (clear signs, proofs, evidences) and the Scripture and the Book of Enlightenment.” (Al-Imran 3:184)

“Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Auliya (supporters and helpers) are Taghut [false deities and false leaders], they bring them out from light into darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever.” (Al-Baqarah 2:257)

These beautiful words remind us that Allah (swt) led us out of the darkness of Kufr to the light of Islam. Many converts to Islam can testify to this. Before, we did not have dignity or respect for ourselves. Our thoughts were shallow and limited to our desires. We saw only races and colours in our fellow human beings, blinded to the potentials of brotherhood.  Truly, Islam enlightens us today, as it did the pagan Arabs of yesterday.

Progress and Advancement in Islam     

Progress is not limited to material advancement, but is holistic in nature. A civilization cannot be called developed, if its creed does not address the greatest questions of the humankind: where do we come from? what is the purpose of life? what happens after the life of this world? Islam profoundly answers these questions – thus, it can be truly called enlightened. Islam deals with a changing world through Ijtihad (exerting effort in understanding a reality, so that it can be judged by Islam to be permitted or not).

Islam’s Motives Differ from Capitalism

Islam does not allow the hoarding of wealth and privatization of natural resources. The Islamic State (which does not exist today) administers the natural resources for the benefit of the people. Allah (swt) says about spending:

“O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendships, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zalimun (wrong-doers).” (Al-Baqarah 2:254)

“And spend in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allah), and do good. Truly, Allah (swt) loves Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers).” (Al-Baqarah 2:195)

To Allah (swt) we all will return, so it is better to keep our eyes on the objective of life, when it comes to our wealth. If we can alleviate some of the pain of the poor, we should do it. The objective of modern capitalism, however, is to gain more and more wealth, while the masses live in poverty.

Family Ties and Community in Islam

An extreme emphasis on individuality has stripped society of the feeling of community, especially in the West. One is not to ‘cut the ties of the womb’ in Islam. Muslims must take care of their parents and visit their relatives. Muslims must be aware of being a part of one Ummah, which, according to Prophet Muhammad (sa), feels pain as if one body-not nation states.

Finally, many of us are professionals, who learned what we know from theorists and scientists of the West. We must understand that the roots of western ideologies are based only on worldly wisdom. It does not mean that technology, industry, medicine, and research cannot be benefited from. However, we should not depart from Allah (swt) in the process, as the West did.

Allah (swt) says:

“And so judge (you o Muhammad) among them by what Allah has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they turn you (O Muhammad) far away from some of that which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that Allah’s Will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. And truly, most of men are Fasiqun (rebellious and disobedient to Allah).” (Al-Maidah 5:49)

The problem of today’s world is not in one symptom or many symptoms. The problem is the root cause – going away from Allah (swt). I pray to Allah (swt) to forgive my sins and make this short essay benefit our Ummah. Ameen.

The State of Nafs

Vol 3-Issue 2 The state  of NafsWhen I think about meeting my Rabb (Lord) on the Day of Judgement and being asked about my actions, it occurs to me that my biggest sins, transgressions, and flat out rebellions are tied to my Nafs (whims, desires, emotions, lusts) and my ignorance.

Nafs is a powerful force influencing our actions and behaviour. For example, there are men willing to take great risks in pursuit of a woman’s sexuality-to the point, where they would be ready to jeopardize their time, money, family, children, and even their wives.

Lust for material things in life is also well known. Often times they are not necessities but indulgencies that we desire. These lusts and desires have to be seriously re-assessed with the understanding that we will be asked about them by Allah (swt) on the day, when no excuses will be accepted. We will not even be allowed to speak.

Allah (swt) says: “Then on that Day you shall be asked about the delights (you indulged in, in this world).” (At-Takathur 102:8)

“And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth.” (Al-Adiyat 100:8)

“This Day, We shall seal up their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their legs will bear witness to what they used to earn.” (Ya-Sin 36:65)

According to social scientists, lusts or tastes fall into the social category. They are conditioned by the particular society that one lives in. For example, people brought up in the West have strong sentiments for freedom and individuality. Although cultures are becoming more and more global, we can still say that the value of freedom and individuality is higher in the West than in the East. The point here is that we come to like what we like based on long years of socialization or conditioning.

All of this leads me to consider the causes for my shortcomings on Yawmal Qiyamma (Day of Judgement). It is not the lack of understanding that certain actions are Haram, but it is our failure to control our lusts/desires for such actions.

Looking at our children, we see the effects of our Nafs. We desire better for our children than for ourselves. We want them to be Hafiz of the Quran, Amir of Jihad, have the Iman of Umar (rta), and show extraordinary patience in times of difficulty, as Islam demands. However, the question that we must face is – what are the effects of being conditioned by systems that are not based on Islam?

Whether we realize it or not, any system (political, social, economic, etc.) that is not based on Islam is Kufr. The entire world lives under Kufr systems – democracy, capitalism, pseudo-socialism, pseudo-Islam, etc. The ideology of Kufr is spread through textbooks, television, magazines, constitutions, advertisements, radio, schools, etc. These values and lusts are further re-enforced through other social agents, such as family members, friends, associates, and teachers.

Let us think back to when we first began to like what we like. If we think carefully and hard enough, it is the result of a particular idea given to us by someone or something (for example, radio or TV). This idea became a concept, in which we now believe and act upon.

You might be saying: “Yes, brother, this is why we need to work on ourselves.” This is certainly true, and we must make Tawbah (sincere repentance and intention not to make sins again). Yet, is it the whole truth? Working to re-socialize (defined as an intense, active process) one’s self is part of our Shahadah (testimony of faith). Our Shahadah indicates that we would not make our Nafs our God – only Allah (swt) alone is our Rabb. We must also understand that Islam has a system based on this Aqeedah (creed). When we said our Shahadah, we agreed to accept His laws and systems.

Allah (swt) says: “And so judge (you o Muhammad (sa)) among them by what Allah (swt) has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them least they turn you (O Muhammad (sa)) far away from some of that which Allah (swt) has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that Allah (swt)’s Will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. And truly, most of men are Fasiqun (rebellious and disobedient to Allah (swt)).” (Al-Ma’idah 5:49)

Cleary, the Arabic Ahkum baynahum bi Ma Anzala lllahu (So Ahkum (Rule or Judge) baynahum (between them) bi Ma Anzala llahu (with or by what (ma) Allah (swt) has revealed) is talking about the Quran. Our Shahadah indicated that we would live our lives according to this oath to Allah (swt). Anyone, who appreciates what socialization or conditioning builds in an individual, should yearn to be under such a system that will culture us with Islam instead of Kufr or Shirk. We should wish for our children to grow learning to lust for Jannah. Don’t we desire for our children not to have frustrations about what society tells them and what Allah (swt) has said?

Living in an Muslim society is a mercy to the Muslim, who wants to attain the mercy of his Rabb. Allah (swt) says: “O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah (swt), but do that which they are commanded.” (At-Tahrim 66:6)

Would any Muslim deny that it is not a mercy to live under systems of Islam, which from the beginning condition the baby Muslim that he is not free but a slave of Allah (swt)? Who would deny this? Would we deny that it is harder to look at a woman, if she is covered by Islamic dress? Would we deny that it is easy to engage in sin under Kufr as compared to Islam?

The Islamic guidelines are a mercy from Allah (swt) for guiding us away from the Haram and towards the Halal. Remember what social scientists have said – values, whims, lusts, and desires are all social. They are created by the creeds or ideologies that the people live under. This being the case, it is clear that if we want to have good Islamic values, we must be conditioned by Islam in its entirety from the beginning.

I believe we must broaden our understanding of what it means to work on our Nafs. Our understanding should be based on the ideology and systems that feed us our thinking in the first place. Secondly, we must consider our family’s fate under systems other than Islam.

Let us work on our Nafs by bringing back the system of Allah (swt), which will be a mercy for us on the Day of Judgement. May Allah (swt) guide us in this work, forgive us our sins, and help us to desire nothing but what He desires for us, which is submission to His complete way of life.