Al-Malik – The King or The Sovereign.
The Sovereign is the one who has the power to dominate over everything.
Al-Malik implies that:
- He has the complete right to govern what He owns,
- He has complete authority over what He owns,
- He possesses predominant power over everything,
- He alone does what he wants with regards to prohibitions.
He is the Supreme Ruler of the human race; He alone is the lawmaker and has the right to change them without permission from anyone.
Imam Al-Ghazali explains that Allah is The Sovereign who is independent of any being either in His person or attributes. Rather everything that exists gains its existence from Him.
Furthermore, man is always in need of Allah for his existence. And the kingship given to man is a gift from Allah whose sovereignty has no competitor.
Abu Hurairah (rta) reported that the Prophet (sa) said: “Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, will seize the earth on the Day of Judgment and will fold the heavens in his right hand and will say: ‘I am the Lord; where are the kings of the world?'” (Muslim)
Malik is used in the Quran 5 times in Surah Al-Hashr verse 23, Surah Ta-Ha verse 114, Surah Al-Jumuah verse 1, Surah An-Nas Verse 2. Malik Al-Mulk that appears in Surah Al-Imran verse 26 is the one who executes his word in His kingdom as He pleases. Malik is used once in Surah Al-Qamar Verse 55.
Al-Quddus – The Pure, Blessed and Holy.
This is another attribute that conveys Allah’s purity and freedom from all flaws. It also implies that Allah bestows purity on others and in turn alludes to Allah’s perfection. The Prophet (sa) in his Dua of Ruku and Sujood said: “Subboohun, quddoosun Rabbul Malaikati War Ruh,” Perfect and Holy Lord of the angels and Jibreel. (Muslim)
Imam Al-Ghazali said that Allah is free of any defect that man can think of, and his purity is beyond human imagination.
A believer is obligated to maintain a pure concept of Allah that befits His majesty, in order to maintain a correct Aqeedah and correct opinion of Allah. Whoever has a good opinion of Allah, Allah will be up to that expectation.
Al-Quddus appears in Surah Al-Hashr verse 23: “He is Allah, besides whom there is no other God, the sovereign Lord, the Holy one.” Surah Al-Jumu’ah verse 1: “Whatever is in the heavens and on the earth, both declare the praise and glory of God, the Sovereign, the Holy One, the exalted in might and wise.”
As-Salam – To be safe, sound, and flawless.
Allah is the source of peace. His actions are untarnished or unimpaired by evil, i.e. evil intended for evil itself.
Imam Al-Ghazali explains Allah’s being as safe, sound and free from any flaws. Otherwise, the creation would not be safe.
This attribute of Allah appears in Surah Al-Hashr verse 23: “Allah is He, than Whom there is no other God;-The Sovereign, the Holy one, The Source of Peace.”
The Prophet (sa) used to make the following Dua after every Salah: “O Allah you are As Salam and from you is all peace, blessed are you, O possessor of Majesty and Honour.” (Muslim)